Invisible Voices

a voice for the voiceless

Category Archives: pattrice jones

Spring at Eastern Shore

Rich came down from NYC this past weekend so that we could head out to Eastern Shore Chicken Sanctuary and lend pattrice a hand for a day. Rich has wanted to visit the sanctuary for a while, and I like to get out there once a month or so. Well, once a month is my stated goal, but I’ve only made it out there four times in the past ten months!

There are many reasons why it is important to me to make that trip. Partially simply to show some kind of support and solidarity, to make the effort for someone who is a bit off of the beaten path, for someone who contributes so much to the movement, and to the life and health of over a hundred chickens. And a few ducks, cats, and dogs as well. Support is important, and sometimes I think it is a part of activism that we don’t pay enough attention to. As it happens, pattrice is the author of Aftershock, and creating sanctuary for each other is something she talks about. It is something I think about often.

There is also the fact that I learn a lot every time I am there. I learn about gardening, about composting, I learn that the chickens and the wild birds communicate effortlessly, and that even I can pick up a phrase here and there. Last weekend it was the hum that can be loosely translated to “be alert, something might be up.”

Added to that is simple enjoyment. I got to see the babies I’d taxied down last month, as well as the rooster. The rooster was the same, a bit full of himself, but not so much that he was challenging the others. He is obviously thrilled to be wandering around the sanctuary. The babies grew a ton, but were still definitely babies. They grow so fast! I’m glad I got to see them one more time in their baby guise. They’ll be full grown in no time.

baby chicks at eastern shore

Don’t they look like the rooster is showing them something important?

After Rich and I cleaned out one of the coops and spread a fresh layer of hay, we raked two areas of the yard clear of the sweetgum fruits. They are hard to walk on, for birds, humans, and I imagine dogs and cats as well, and they also inhibit growth of plants. So we raked up the fruits and added them to the compost pile. pattrice worked on some gardening tasks, which included planting a couple clumps of grass. This proved fascinating for the birds, who gathered around to nibble on the treat!

chickens eating grass at ES

On one of my trips back from the compost pile, Sparrow posed for me. Beautiful and photogenic, which I think she was well aware of!

sparrow at ES

Of course it wasn’t all work, as enjoyable as it was to spend time working outside in perfect spring weather! Rich and I brought some lunch and other goodies from Stickyfingers, and so we all enjoyed a delicious lunch, great conversation, and had plenty of time to give love and attention to the various cats and dogs that have come to find a home with pattrice as well. The most recent addition is Loca, who is full of amazing energy and joy.

loca at ES

Someday I’ll have to post about Madeline, who is part deer, part cat, part pig, part Jurassic mammal, and all that hidden in a dog costume. She needs her own post, as you can imagine!


Anger, activism, and taking care of ourselves

hal dust bathing

Anger and activism is something that came up in one of the sessions at AR07. I remember one woman worrying about a question that was brought up in this video – that if she stopped being angry, her activism would lose steam.

I think we can all understand that, because I imagine we have all had one or many pivotal moments where we experienced various degrees of anger, outrage, quite possibly hate, and these pivotal moments often spurred us to become the people and activists we are today. Do we hold onto that anger to fuel our activism? Or will that lead us to burnout? Do we let ourselves feel it, and then let it go, trusting that our activism won’t fade just because the anger doesn’t burn continuously?

Buddhist thought probably isn’t for everyone, but it is still a perspective that is worth listening to. The video is about 10 minutes long, and around minute 4 or 5 is where they talk about anger and activism.

And you might want to read (or reread) one of pattrice’s blog entries on nurturing activism. If you haven’t read “Aftershock” yet, you should do that as well.

I’ve recently made some big changes in how I take care of myself, and rereading pattrice’s entry on nurturing activism had me nodding my head. I never disagreed that it would be a good thing, but I don’t think I realized just what a toll was being taken on me by my constant sleep deprivation and my lack of attention to my water intake. From pattrice’s blog:

Your brain is part of your body and its functioning depends on how you treat your body. If you’re going to be as smart and creative as you can be, you have to take care of your brain. Take a multivitamin to make sure you’re getting all of the micronutrients you need. Be sure to get your essential fatty acids, since your brain is mostly fat. (I take a vegan DHA supplement just to be sure.) Don’t forget to drink your water, since dehydration slows down brain functioning. Do take my advise about going outside, since moderate exercise like walking helps to oxygenate your brain.

As logical as these words are, having felt the very real change in the past few weeks as I’ve made it a point to take better care of myself makes these words feel revolutionary. A friend forwarded a New York Magazine article to me today, on sleep deprivation in children and how it impacted cognitive abilities.

Sleep loss debilitates our body’s ability to extract glucose from the bloodstream. Without this stream of basic energy, one part of the brain suffers more than the rest: the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for what’s called “executive function.” Among these executive functions are the orchestration of thoughts to fulfill a goal, the prediction of outcomes, and perceiving consequences of actions. So tired people have difficulty with impulse control, and their abstract goals like studying take a back seat to more entertaining diversions. A tired brain perseverates—it gets stuck on a wrong answer and can’t come up with a more creative solution, repeatedly returning to the same answer it already knows is erroneous.

I am not a child, but I have experienced that brain-in-a-rut syndrome as a side-effect of sleep-deprivation. This is one of those things that seems so obvious, and yet I have had such a habit of sleep-deprivation that I had forgotten what my thoughts and thought-processes felt like when I was rested. The difference wasn’t slight, it was significant.

Sleep is a biological imperative for every species on Earth. But humans alone try to resist its pull. Instead, we see sleep not as a physical need but a statement of character. It’s considered a sign of weakness to admit fatigue, and it’s a sign of strength to refuse to succumb to slumber. Sleep is for wusses.

But perhaps we are blind to the toll it is taking on us. The University of Pennsylvania’s David Dinges did an experiment shortening adults’ sleep to six hours a night. After two weeks, they reported they were doing okay. Yet on a battery of tests, they proved to be just as impaired as someone who has stayed awake for 24 hours straight.

Dinges did the experiment to demonstrate how sleep loss is cumulative, and how easily our judgment can be fooled by sleep deprivation. Nevertheless, it’s easy to read his research and think, “I would suffer, but not that bad. I would be the exception.” We’ve coped on too-little sleep for years and managed to get by.

I’ve been living on 4-6 hours of sleep a night for years, with some extra on the weekends. “I don’t need as much sleep as most people,” is one of the things I told myself as I struggled to concentrate at work. In the past few weeks I’ve been teaching myself to go to sleep earlier, and mostly have managed 7 – 7.5 hours of sleep per night, which is better but still not ideal. The nights when I have slipped back into the trap of going to bed later than I intended and got only 6 hours of sleep, I could feel a difference the next day. Why have I let myself get so little sleep for so many years? The reasons were layered, but in a way, it comes back to this, which bears repeating:

Sleep is a biological imperative for every species on Earth. But humans alone try to resist its pull. Instead, we see sleep not as a physical need but a statement of character. It’s considered a sign of weakness to admit fatigue, and it’s a sign of strength to refuse to succumb to slumber. Sleep is for wusses.

I know better now. It might take time to kick the habit of sleep deprivation completely, but at least I recognize its importance now. I believe in sleep, and I’m stronger for it.

chicken barn at ps

Global Climate and Disaster Rescue

chickens at es

This post is going to mostly be about disaster rescue, but since much of the disasters we are facing are linked to the Global Climate change that we are in the middle of, it makes sense to talk about that a bit as well.

Katrina is a perfect example. Devastating, and expected to be just one of more to come. The cost to humans and animals is still accruing. The homes and lives lost, the companions separated from their humans, the numbers are outrageous.

But it isn’t just the dramatic storms that we need to keep an eye on. pattrice posted recently about drought and despair at Eastern Shore Sanctuary. The wells have been drying up along her street for a while now, and her number came up in the past week or so. They now have to bring water in to clean, to hydrate. The well is played out. I was out there on July 4, not even a month ago. It was lush and green, the duck ponds were filled, and we hadn’t been sure that our visit wouldn’t, again, be rained out. It is hard to imagine the changes that have happened in just a month. This is what really got to me:

While the dense wild greenery of parts of the foraging yards is still lush, the high-traffic areas that we reseeded this spring have withered and died. The character of the soil in those areas is changing in a way that I can feel when I walk over them but have a hard time finding ways to describe. It’s as if the ground is losing its elasticity and coherence, crumbling from hardpan into powdery dust.

It is scary as well, how quickly these things can come up on us. Of course it has been in the works for many years, perhaps decades. It is only now that it is hitting us. The sanctuary needs financial help now to dig a new well.

At AR07 I went to a talk on “Conducting Disaster Rescues (preparing and conducting effective animal rescues during national disasters)”, with Jane Garrison, Tim Gorski, and Brenda Shoss speaking.

Brenda is with Kinship Circle, which focuses a lot on letter writing campaigns to the media. They also have an extensive list of fact sheets, available in pdf format, which seemed pretty solid to me. They have action alerts you can sign up for to be notified of national and global disasters as well.

Jane’s talk is the one that sticks in my mind. When she began hearing of the number of animals stranded as their care givers were forced to leave them behind in the wake of Katrina, she contacted a friend in the area. Told that, with 30 people working rescue, they were set, and didn’t need anyone to assist them, she packed her car with traps and whatever else she thought would be useful, knowing that with the disaster they were facing 300 people wouldn’t be enough, and set off to New Orleans.

It was even worse than she expected when she got there. She did an interview with Satya in November 2005, just a couple months after Katrina, which tells much of this story. The key, she said, is to question whether what is being done is the best thing for the animals. The official rescue group in New Orleans kept turning people away, even as they desperately needed help. Jane didn’t let it stop her.

Most of her initial work was done with HSUS, but they were only allowed to help until a certain time. When they were told to pack it up and leave, Jane knew too much needed to be done, and started a local group to stay and continue the work. Animal Rescue New Orleans was born, and exists today as a grassroots organization, run by residents of New Orleans committed to working for the Katrina victims who are still in need of care today, two years after the hurricane.

Very early in the rescue effort, Jane realized that the animals living on the streets needed as much assistance as the animals trapped in homes. She began organizing food and water stations, and that remains the basis of ARNO today. At one point they had 4,000 stations, but with residents slowly trickling back into the city, they need only 2,000 today. TNR has always been a big part of New Orleans animal advocacy, and is also part of ARNO’s effort. Even rescues are still happening, though of course they become increasingly difficult as the animals remaining on the streets are ever more wary of humans.

The numbers are staggering. An estimated 104,000 companion animals were stranded in New Orleans in the wake of Katrina. 15,000 were officially saved. 3,000 are known to have been reunited. 90,000 remain unaccounted for in New Orleans alone. It is believed that 40,000 cats and 5,000 dogs are still living on the streets in New Orleans. The importance of the food and water stations is clear.

Tim Gorski, of Rattle The Cage Productions, had just come back from rescue efforts in Thailand from the tsunami disaster, when Katrina struck. He’d been home in Florida for about a week. Once they’d helped the rescue and clean up operations in their home town, they headed to New Orleans to assist in the rescue there.

Their stories are astounding. It sometimes took half a day to find a house that had floated down the street from where they expected to find it. Street signs were often missing. When they found the houses where people reported that they’d left animals, walls would sometimes need to be broken down to reach the animals.

Tim had a lot of great advice for disaster rescues in general.

  1. Don’t become a victim (don’t get injured, don’t get bitten)
  2. Expect the unexpected
  3. Communication always fails
  4. Plans always fail but are essential nonetheless

He also had some great tips for basic set up of the rescue camps, tools to bring, advice on capturing the animals, and what to expect. He strongly advocated getting training through EARS, DART and possibly FEMA (online courses) before taking part in disaster rescues. This is something I think we should all do sooner than later, because we never know what will happen when or where.

Another point that all three brought up was that while legislation passed (PETS act) ensuring that companions would be included in disaster plans, it is essentially what is known as a “paper bill” until funding is allocated to actually get places prepared to handle pets as well as people. We should be writing to our reps to encourage them to fund this act, though hopefully we also learned that we shouldn’t necessarily depend on the government to act in a timely enough manner to save lives. Many states have their own plans and anyone living in a state which isn’t at least writing a plan should be contacting their reps to encourage the writing of a plan.

Maybe we can’t prevent disasters from happening, but we can certainly do our best to be prepared for them.


Environmentalism: part of Animal Rights

chicken at pps

Seems like a no-brainer to me. We have to be environmentalists if we’re to be animal rights activists, otherwise what is the point?

Humans are putting unfathomable amounts of pressure on animals as it is, encroaching on their habitat, pushing them into ever smaller and less sustainable areas, killing them when they compete with the human desire for bloodsport. We poison the air, the land, the water, until they die drinking the water they need to survive. Plastic chokes the oceans, and the few fish that are left are filled with it. Baby albatross are dying from starvation, their bellies filled to bursting with plastic that somehow finds its way to their remote nesting areas. We compete for resources, for land, for life. This is only going to get worse as the climate change puts more pressure on all of us. We saw this with the tsunami, with Katrina, we can see it in the Amazon’s rainforest failing, while farmers continue to cut it down for unsustainable crops.

What are we doing? We don’t have a choice, we have to be environmental activists as well as animal rights activists if we’re to be taken seriously. Yet are we reaching out? Are we spending time on the environmental issues as well as the animal issues? Are we going to the Social Forums, as the other movements are?

Not so much. And we need to.

That’s something that was pointed out again and again last weekend, at the AR conference in LA.

I’ve been reading a bit on environmental issues in the past few months, partially inspired by a good friend (who would probably be shocked to learn the impact he had), partially inspired by pattrice jones, and once I got started reading my awareness really took off. Diet For a Dead Planet, Food Not Lawns, Aftershock and With Speed and Violence, I know I have to do more. I have to make changes in my personal life, where I can, but I also have to educate myself on the environmental issues, and join in their fight. Because it is also our fight.

RAN was at AR07, and I had the pleasure of hearing Debra Erenberg speak several times. RAN was the only environmental group at the conference, which doesn’t seem like much, but I think it was an important start in what I can only imagine will be a growing trend. These movements need to connect. We need to connect with them, and that means putting in some time on their causes. I don’t just mean the Environmental movement, either. The whole range. It gets talked about, but what do we actually do about it?

Debra wrote an entry in RAN’s blog about the conference, which includes one of the speeches she gave, and I think it is a great into into why it is so important that our movements hook up.

The first step is always education. RAN’s blog seems like a good place to start, and they have other blogs listed. I’m just getting started. I’ve read a few books. I’d love to hear what else is on the must-read list. Bird Flu is in my to-read pile.

I’ve made a few changes in my life in the past year – energy efficient light bulbs, the bus to nyc instead of driving, cloth menstrual pads, buying more food from farmers markets, and paying more attention to whether the food at the local organic grocery is locally grown…I still drive to work, and I don’t see that changing. I’m sure there are other changes I can make though.

And of course there is the need to get involved. I’ve joined RAN, and I’ll participate where I can in their local campaigns. I don’t know yet where this will take me, but it feels right to be on this path.


Poplar Spring – 4th annual Run for the Animals

ps goat

Anyone who reads my blog once in a while knows that I spend a fair amount of time at Poplar Spring Animal Sanctuary. This Sunday there is a benefit run, so anyone in the area should show up at Wheaton Park in time for it!

Ryan of VegBlog will be there, and … well, that pretty much exhausts my knowledge of the people of the area, aside from Terry and Dave of Poplar Spring, and Erica of COK. I’m sure I’ll be meeting a few other people at the race, which will be fun. Lyn of COK has promised to introduce me around.

I won’t be running, but I’ll be taking pictures. I’m helping out COK in that respect, and we’ll submit an article about the race and about Poplar Spring to VegNews. Who knows if it will get published (while VegNews doesn’t seem like the kind of publication that prints articles like that, they did publish an article about last year’s race, so who knows!), but it seems worth a shot. Luckily all I have to do is take pictures for that article.

I will be submitting another article, one about one of the residents of Poplar Spring. I’m laughing to myself as I type this, because I feel like I need to say “Bob, don’t make fun of me if I get published in VegNews, okay?”

And now, to quickly change the topic, pattrice jones has just started up a really awesome blog in the past few days. I’m so happy she did – as much as I love “Aftershock” and appreciate all of the articles she writes, it makes me that much happier to see that there will be yet more of pattrice’s writing to read on a very regular basis. She’s busy making connections that desperately need to be made, and that most of us might not make without a little prodding. Go check it out – you won’t be sorry!

chickens at eastern shore

Eastern Shore Sanctuary

eastern shore sanctuary

I drove 140 miles to Eastern Shore Sanctuary this weekend. It is on the (you might guess) eastern shore of Maryland, right in the middle of chicken land (by which I mean chickens-raised-for-short-lives-and-horrible-deaths land), and I have the utmost admiration for Pattrice Jones and Miriam Jones, who co-founded the sanctuary. The sanctuary is home mostly to chickens, but also a few ducks and cats and dogs. Karen Davis has done something similar on the eastern shore of Virginia, with United Poultry Concerns.

They certainly are located in an area where they can directly help many chickens, where chickens need a lot of help. The trucks filled with live chickens on the way to slaughter rumble by the sanctuary, and many of the residents have come to Eastern Shore Sanctuary by virtue of escaping the truck as they are on their way to their death. Many chickens who do this come to an immediate end on the hard asphalt, but some lucky ones survive and are brought to the sanctuary to live out their lives.

Their short lives. Even after being rescued, the genetic abuse they have been subjected to shortens their lives to about a year. By then their skeletons are overwhelmed by the massive size their bodies grow to, and they often die of sudden heart attacks.

But on this particular sunny, gorgeous day, we got to see chickens “sleeping like the dead” but alive and basking in the sun, nibbling on food, exploring their world. When they lay sprawled on the ground to nap in the sun, completely still, they really do look like they are sleeping the long sleep. Pattrice says they routinely fool her when they do this, and it is easy to see how! Despite the time I’ve spent at Poplar Spring and the few visits to Peaceful Prairie, I had never seen chickens doing this. There is always something new to learn.

We mucked out the chicken’s main barn, and hosed it down. It was the first nice day in quite a while, and warm enough that it would have time to dry. We cleared areas of the yard to make them more chicken friendly, and curious types that they are, they wandered to where we were working, delighted to find yummy green things growing in this area they had been ignoring. We examined the solar panels powering the pond’s pump with curiosity and envy, as well as a sort of vicarious satisfaction – Pattrice is one to live her beliefs with every action. She is as passionate about the environment as she is about animal rights and human rights, but she doesn’t just talk about it. She teaches kids at a local college, she runs a sanctuary for chickens, and she lives as green as she can possibly manage, composting toilet and all.

We didn’t check out the composting toilet, but we did absorb the peace of being away from the city, at a sanctuary that creates a world within its boundaries that the world around it really should strive toward. The chickens get to choose whether to roost in the trees, go feral, or spend their nights in the barn. They can decide for themselves what they prefer, between safety and absolute freedom.

The sanctuary feels very much like a it was set down there from a different planet. The peace and the joy on the property, the far reaching impact the sanctuary has on those who visit, that Pattrice has on those she teaches, talks to, and on those who read her writing; it is all so different from the surrounding area, from what you’d naturally expect from an area where there are chicken farms just barely out of sight in at least two directions.

Pattrice has a way of making you think. At least, she makes me think. I am so glad that I’m only 140 miles away. I’ll be going back.

eastern shore

alternative activisms

allison and chloe at poplar spring

This may come as a surprise, but I love taking pictures, and I take a lot of them. Okay, probably not much of a surprise. I try to use that interest and do what I can with it in my activism. Other people write so well that I feel like I’m right there, experiencing everything they describe. And others are excellent at organizing or fund-raising or creating business plans or websites or creating amazing food or any number of things. The point is that we all have our own talents and interests, strengths, skills, and experience. There are ways we can use our skills to aid our causes in ways that are outside the more typical things we see being done. Activism doesn’t begin and end with protests and letters to the editor, as helpful as those are. They simply might not be suited to everyone’s talents.

Just thinking about the shelters, sanctuaries, and rescue organizations, and the needs they have provides almost endless space for people’s talents, whatever they are. When there are animals that can be adopted out, having good portraits and well-told stories goes a long way to helping individual animals find homes. Artists can use their talents for fund-raising, creating calendars for the organizations to use, or donating art work to be sold at their fund-raisers. People with organizing talents can help take on the burden of organizing the fund-raisers, or with the endless paperwork that needs to be done. The options are almost endless.

I’ve had people encouraging me in the past few months to do more. Actually, it started about a year ago when a good friend put the idea in my head to use pictures combined with AR activism in a blog. At the time, to be honest, I expected to document things like fur protests, and that’s about it. I have done some of that, to be sure, but being the shutterbug I am, I started seeing AR issues in everyday things, news articles, and events in my life. So I didn’t stop with documenting fur protests, and as time has gone on, I’ve seen more places where I can potentially help.

I know that everyone has something special to them that they can use as a form of activism. This can be as big as writing books and doing podcasts, or as subtle as encouraging and supporting other activists, creating the sanctuary that, as Pattrice Jones wrote about in “Aftershock”, we need to help prevent or recover from burnout.

I don’t have much to say in this post other than to encourage everyone to think about what they can do to contribute. If anyone has ever felt like they should be doing something, but were stopped by certain constraints, the trick is to look at things from another perspective, to find a way to contribute that they might not have thought of before. Or maybe just to look at what they already do and acknowledge the ways they already contribute. We don’t have to be martyrs to our cause, after all. The added benefit to doing things we enjoy in ways that can help our causes is that we are less likely to suffer burnout, as long as we don’t forget to take care of ourselves at the same time. There is a middle ground, and we should seek it.

white flower commons

“Aftershock” – a full review

salta day tour

Aftershock” by Pattrice Jones. A discussion of trauma and how to recover from it, of the intersection of the ‘isms, a look at what we can do to avoid or deal with burn out, and what we can do to make a difference right now.

It is a lot to cover, but Pattrice approaches it in a way that is very accessible, and very personal. Reading “Aftershock” felt more like sitting down with a cup of coffee or tea with a good friend and having a heartfelt discussion than reading a book that realistically makes a good guide for psychologists dealing with aftershocked activists.

A sanctuary may be a place or a relationship. The safe-enough physical space is a place where the activist can just be, without worrying about demands or dangers.

Pattrice got my attention right away, when she talked about depression. I’ve suffered from periodic depression since I was a young child, something that was not trauma related, something I should probably get professional help for, and which at this point I imagine to be chemical, something built-in to my brain. Listening to someone who I knew could relate, personally, with depression made me listen with that much more confidence in what she’d have to say.

And the same was true when she discussed her activism. Here is someone who has been there. She has high qualifications, both from her education in school, as well as her education in life.

She doesn’t just talk about trauma and depression. She discusses ways we can keep ourselves and the people and earth around us healthier. She discusses the connections between all of these things, and in such a way it seems incredibly obvious. She talks about the importance of community.

Like broken bones, cracked cultures rarely right themselves. We have to take action against fracture.

Pattrice connected sexism and racism and classism and environmentalism in a very convincing way. I might be forgetting some of the ‘isms in my list of connections she made. If I wasn’t already vegan, she would have done a good job of getting me closer. She did convince me to be more dedicated about taking care of my health, and she also convinced me to take a close look at my life and make some changes that affect my energy and water consumption, as well as limit my vehicle emissions. It’s not that I’ve been unconcerned about the environment, it is just that I know I could do more than I have been doing, right now.

I’ll start going to NYC by bus, instead of driving. I’ll do a better job of tackling the public transit in my area. I’m already looking at energy providers – I have the option of paying a little more for 100% green energy. I’ll change all of my light bulbs to the energy-saving fluorescent kind. There are so many little things like this we can do, and Pattrice’s reminder came at a good time for me.

Taking care of my world, as well as myself, is a renewing process all on its own. Creating community is something I try to do, and I know that my friends are the reason I got through my dark time this fall. (you know who you are. i can’t say often enough or strong enough how much it means that you were there for me. thank you.)

Everybody’s pain is real. Everybody’s pain is meaningful to them. No, the trauma of the undercover investigator who observes monkeys being tortured is not as acute as the suffering of the monkeys themselves. But it is not “nothing.” All suffering is real and meaningful, particularly to the being enduring it. Every social change movement must embrace an ethos of empathy for all – including ourselves.

This book was both a reminder of things I know but am lazy about, as well as a directed explanation for how we, activists making ourselves vulnerable to aftershock, can help each other and be helped. How we can recover from aftershock and prevent burnout, how we can get help if we or someone we know is thinking about suicide. I can’t recommend this book highly enough to those who are out there, who have been out there, who will be out there, or who know someone who puts themselves out there.

We are not alone. We’re not the only species on earth or even the only sentient animals. It might feel like giving something up to recognize your kinship with, and therefore obligation toward, nonhuman animals. But you always gain more than you lose when you take a broader view of your family tree.

* all quotes are from Pattrice Jones’ book, “Aftershock”.

iguazu falls